Peddicord has broad experience in assessment and management of environmental
risks for a variety of clients, with particular emphasis on all
aspects of environmental issues faced by recreational, law enforcement
and military shooting ranges. His technical activities include conduct
of projects, scientific consultation, assessment of potential environmental
impacts at shooting ranges, development of practical environmental
management approaches, siting and designing ranges to minimize potential
impacts, ecological risk assessment, regulatory review and negotiation,
expert testimony, and regulatory and public interaction.
received a B.S. degree in biology in 1968 from Morehead State University,
and a Ph.D. in Marine Science in 1973 from the University of Virginia
through the Virginia Institute of Marine Science.
Range Assessment and Management Experience
directed an in-depth literature review and evaluation of the environmental
chemistry controlling lead mobility at outdoor shooting ranges for
the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute, Inc.
(SAAMI). He developed a guidance manual on environmental aspects
of construction and management of outdoor shooting ranges that constitutes
National Shooting Sports Foundation (NSSF) guidance on "best
management practices" for use at ranges as an alternative to
non-specific management approaches that might be imposed by regulatory
agencies. He developed a "user friendly" computerized
application of that guidance to aide ranges in preparing their own
site-specific Environmental Stewardship Plans. He also authored
an NSSF report on the appropriate use and common misuses of standard
"hazardous waste" tests for range evaluation and management.
Dr. Peddicord was invited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) to be a scientific peer reviewer of their "Best
Management Practices for Lead at Outdoor Shooting Ranges"
that is now national EPA policy for lead management. As a subcontractor
to EPA, he assessed technologies for reclaiming lead from outdoor
shooting ranges for recycling.
has conducted initial site assessments of several shooting ranges
to determine whether there was a basis for environmental concern.
He evaluated environmental impacts and conducted a remedial investigation/feasibility
study of sediments containing lead shot at Lordship Gun Club for
Remington Arms Company under a State consent order and a lawsuit
under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Clean
Water Act (CWA). The work included field sampling, assessment of
risks to waterfowl and water quality, and development of an innovative
remediation approach adapting hydraulic mining technology to recover
lead while minimizing environmental concerns. The client, State
and intervenor group that had brought suit agreed to the approach
and remedial construction has been completed. Dr. Peddicord directed
a RI/FS including human health and ecological risk assessments under
a RCRA Consent Order at Blue Mountain Sportsman's Center trap/skeet/rifle/pistol
range for Westchester County, New York. This project included design
and oversight of extensive site investigations and recommendation
of an innovative approach to control risks without expensive destruction
of valuable habitat to remove lead. The EPA accepted the recommendation,
and Dr. Peddicord assisted the range with design, permitting and
construction. Dr. Peddicord reviewed a range site assessment on
behalf of the National Rifle Association (NRA) and documented the
inappropriateness of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation
and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") for environmental
management at operating shooting ranges. He led an environmental
assessment, comprehensive evaluation of management alternatives,
development of preliminary engineering plans and initial cost estimates
for environmental enhancements at Markham Park Target Range for
Broward County FL. Dr. Peddicord provided environmental evaluations
and management recommendations for moving law enforcement training
from one range to a new range for the City of El Centro CA. He conducted
a site assessment and evaluation of alternatives for re-opening
a trap/skeet/sporting clays facility owned by Suffolk County NY
Parks Department. He conducted an environmental evaluation for a
Midwest State Trapshooting Association related to potential sale
of range property. Dr. Peddicord developed an Environmental Stewardship
Plan (ESP) format for NSSF consistent with U.S. Forest Service policies
and procedures. He has prepared site-specific ESPs for numerous
ranges across the country.
general approach to range issues is to document the actual effects,
or lack thereof, at the specific range in question. Where appropriate,
innovative cost-effective solutions to site-specific problems are
developed based on realistic assessment of actual risks. The objective
is to minimize present and future liabilities so that the range
can continue environmentally and economically sound operation.
Support Experience - The work described above
for Remington Arms Company at Lordship Gun Club was conducted in
support of counsel. Dr. Peddicord led site investigations and provided
extensive technical support to counsel representing a Midwest resort
leading to a settlement agreement in major Federal regulatory actions
including both a Natural Resource Damage Assessment and a CERCLA
Consent Order related to waterfowl ingestion of lead shot at a trap
and skeet range. Dr. Peddicord provided technical support of counsel
representing the New York Athletic Club trap range sued under RCRA
and the CWA, including site assessment, field sampling and evaluation,
development and negotiation of a settlement agreement advantageous
to the range, design and implementation of lead removal under that
agreement, and bid preparation and contractor selection to perform
the work. Lead removal has been successfully completed. Dr. Peddicord
conducted an initial environmental site assessment for counsel representing
a large Midwest trap range to identify potential concerns so the
client could undertake appropriate pro-active management actions.
Dr. Peddicord supported counsel representing Naperville, IL, Parks
Department facing suit under the CWA. After thorough evaluation
and permitting activities the City received the first NPDES permit
ever issued to a range, allowing continuing shooting of non-toxic
shot into waters of the United States. He conducted an initial site
evaluation and a regulatory analysis of a sporting clays course
shooting into a trout stream for counsel representing a resort in
PA. He supported counsel in a California case involving range management
in relation to environmental liabilities.
Involvement - Dr. Peddicord was an invited speaker at
the 2nd, 3rd & 4th National Shooting Range Symposia and the
Second Strategic Conference on the Hunting and Shooting Sports (Shooting
Sports Summit). He lectured on "Environmental Stewardship at
Outdoor Shooting Ranges" in the Workshop on Best Management
Practices for Outdoor Recreational Shooting Ranges at the 15th International
Conference on Contaminated Soils and Water. He was an invited speaker
and participant at the 2003 Workshop on Shooting Ranges on Public
Lands hosted by the AZ Game & Fish Department. He has been the
invited lecturer on environmental management at NRA's Range Development
and Operations Conferences since 1998. Dr. Peddicord supported the
NSSF in cooperation with (1) Massachusetts Department of Environmental
Protection in surveying environmental issues and possible resolutions
at ranges in that state, and
Department of Environmental Protection in assisting ranges
in developing site-specific Environmental Stewardship Plans. He
was an invited participant and Chair of the Environmental Session
at the 1998 National Skeet Shooting Association (NSSA) Workshop
on Target Shooting in the 21st Century. He was an invited speaker
and participant at the World Symposium on Lead in Ammunition, sponsored
by the World Forum on the Future of Sport Shooting Activities. He
has written a series of articles on environmental management for
the NSSF magazine The Range Report. Dr. Peddicord appeared as an
expert witness on potential environmental impacts and appropriate
assessment and management of environmental impacts at outdoor shooting
ranges before the House Committee on Resources. He has made presentations
on environmental contamination, assessment and management to the
EPA's Science Advisory Board, the Marine Board of the National Academy
of Sciences, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment,
and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Advisory Board.
is the author of over 60 national and international scientific papers,
reports, and presentations dealing with assessment and management
of contaminants in the environment, including ten specifically addressing
shooting range issues.
RANGE-RELATED PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS
R. K. 2004. The National Association of Shooting Ranges' CD-ROM
Project for Environmental Stewardship. Invited Presentation at the
World Symposium on Lead in Ammunition, 9-10 September 2004, Rome,
Italy. Symposium sponsored, and proceedings published, by the World
Forum on the Future of Sport Shooting Activities.
R. K. 2003. The Environmental Consultant series of articles in The
Range Report magazine. National Shooting Sports Foundation, Newtown,
R. K. and J. S. LaKind. 2000. Ecological and human health risks
at an outdoor firing range. Environ. Toxicol. & Chem., Vol.
19, No. 10.
R. K. 2000. Risk Assessment at Outdoor Shooting Ranges. In: H. Kirchner,
ed., Proceedings of 2000 National Shooting Range Symposium. Intl.
Assoc. Fish & Wildlife Agencies, Washington DC
R. 1999. Environmental stewardship at outdoor shooting ranges. Presentation
in Workshop on Best Management Practices for Outdoor Recreational
Shooting Ranges, 15th International Conference on Contaminated Soils
and Water, 18-21 October, 1999, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
R. 1998. Ecological and human health risks at an outdoor shooting
range. Platform presentation at Society of Environmental Toxicology
and Chemistry, 15-19 Nov. 1998, Charlotte NC.
R. 1998. Lead Mobility in Soils. In: H. Kirchner, ed., Proceedings
of 1996 National Shooting Range Symposium. Intl. Assoc. Fish &
Wildlife Agencies, Washington DC
NSSF (R. Peddicord).
1998. Synopsis of Applications and Limitations of TCLP and SPLP
at Outdoor Shooting Ranges. Facility Development Series No. 4, National
Shooting Sports Foundation, Newtown, CT
NSSF (R. Peddicord,
J. Boraczek and R. Pace). 1997. Environmental Aspects of Construction
and Management of Outdoor Shooting Ranges. Facility Development
Series No. 2, National Shooting Sports Foundation, Newtown, CT
NSSF (R. Peddicord,
K. Novo-Gradac and B. Suedel). 1996. Lead Mobility at Shooting Ranges.
Facility Development Series No. 1, National Shooting Sports Foundation,
Cooper's Landing Road Heathsville, VA 22473
Phone: 804-580-3320 Fax 804-580-3360 E-mail